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Freely rendered and abridged from the Pall of 
the Dlgha-Nikaya 






Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato, Sammasambuddhassa ! 






A den of strife is household life, 
And filled with toil and need ; 

But free and high as the open sky 
Is the life the homeless lead." 









THIS SUTTA, though dealing primarily with the 
advantages which may be expected to accrue to 
one who zealously follows the life of a Bhikkhu in 
the Order established by the Buddha, covers so wide a 
field as to be capable of affording instruction to all who 
aspire to any degree of insight into the great Law of the 
Universe. The attainments mentioned are naturally 
arranged in an ascending order of value. While many of 
them are within reach of laymen, at least partially, others 
are hardly to be acquired by those occupied with the cares 
and duties of a householder. To attain perfection in 
the path marked out " may take a whole lifetime — per- 
haps many lifetimes. But that need not daunt any in 
beginning upon the practices. A beginning has to be 
made some time upon the march towards truth, and we 
have each of us all the time there is — the now ! " 

%* As this translation is intended for the general reader it has not 
been deemed necessary to add diacritical marks to any of the proper 
names that occur in the dialogue, seeing that these in no way add to 
the substantial content of the same. For the benefit of those 
interested, however, the names so marked are here appended : — 
Jivaka, Rajagaha, Ajatasattu, Piirana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, 
Ajita Kesakambali, Pakudha Kaccayana, Nigantha Nataputta, Safijaya 
Belatthiputta, Udayi Bhadda. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



Contemporary Indian Beliefs .... 9 
The Lowest, Material Fruit of the Religious 

Life . 12 

Morality — Right Conduct 14 

Watchfulness and Restraint of the Senses . 16 

Recollectedness • *7 

Contentment 17 

Practice of Meditation 17 

Suppression of the Five Hindrances. . . 17 

(1) Craving compared to a Debt . . .18 

(2) Ill-will compared to Sickness . . 18 

(3) Sloth and Torpor compared to Imprison- 

ment 18 

(4) Restless Brooding compared to Slavery 18 

(5) Doubt compared to a Desert Journey . 18 

The Attainment of the Jhanas, or High 
Ecstasies : — 

The First Jhana — Joy born of Detachment 19 

The Second Jhana — Joy born of Concen- 
tration 19 

The Third Jhana — Bliss apart from active 

Joy 20 

The Fourth Jhana — Perfect Calm . . 20 

( 6 ) 


Meditation on the Body and on Nutriment . 20 
The Mental Reflex of the Body . . .21 
The Acquirement of Supernormal Powers 

(Iddhi) 21 

(1) Control of Matter by Mental Skill . 22 

(2) Supernormal Hearing . . . .22 

(3) Insight into the Minds of Others . . 22 

(4) Remembrance of Former Living (Past 

Births) 23 

Penetration into the Process of Life and 
Results of Kamma 24 

Knowledge of Rebirth 24 

Destruction of the Banes 24 

Realising the Four Holy Truths . . 25 




THUS have I heard. 
At one time the Blessed One, along with a great 
company of Bhikkhus, abode at Rajagaha, in the Mango 
Grove of Jivaka the physician. Now about this season 
King Ajatasattu of Magadha, on the night of the day 
of the full moon, with all his ministers about him, sat 
on the roof terrace of his palace. And there, this Sabbath 
day, King Ajatasattu thus gave voice to his feelings : 

" Delightful indeed is this cloudless night ! 
Beauteous indeed is this cloudless night ! 
Lovely indeed is this cloudless night ! 
Calming indeed is this cloudless night ! 
Auspicious indeed is this cloudless night ! 

What ascetic or recluse might we visit this night, whom 
visiting our mind might be soothed and satisfied ? " 

Then one of the ministers, answering, said to the king : 

" There is here, Your Majesty, a certain Purana 
Kassapa, the leader of a company of disciples and fol- 
lowers, known, renowned as the founder of a sect, 
honoured, esteemed by many, of ripe experience, long 
time vowed to the homeless life, far advanced in years. 
Let His Majesty visit this Purana Kassapa. Visiting 
him, haply the mind of my liege-lord may know quiet and 

But when he had made an end of speaking the king 
remained silent. 

Then five others of the king's ministers, each in his 
turn, spoke in identical- wise of Makkhali Gosala, of Ajita 
Kesakambali, of Pakudha Kaccayana, of Nigantha 
Nataputta, and of Sanjaya Belatthiputta. 

But to the speaking of each still the king kept 

Meanwhile, not far from the king, Jivaka the physi- 
cian sat saying nothing. And, turning to Jivaka, the 
king said : ' But you, good Jivaka, why are you silent ? " 

( 8 ) 

" Your Majesty in our Mango Grove, along with a 
great company of Bhikkhus, is now sojourning the Blessed 
One, the Exalted One, the Supremely Awakened One. 
And concerning that Blessed One Gotama, the excellent 
rumour runs : ' A Holy One is this, an Exalted One, a 
Supremely Awakened One, one perfected in knowledge and 
in conduct, well come, a knower of all the worlds, an 
incomparable conductor of men who wish to be conducted, 
a teacher of gods and of men, an Awakened One, a Blessed 
One/ Let His Majesty visit this Blessed .One. Going to 
see this Blessed One, haply my liege-lord's mind may be 
soothed and satisfied." 

" Let the riding elephants be made ready then, good 

" Very good, Your Majesty." 

And Jivaka had the five hundred she-elephants made 
ready, as also the royal state elephant, and sent to make 
known to the king : " The elephants are all ready and 
await His Majesty's pleasure." And King Ajatasattu had 
his women mounted upon the she-elephants, and himself 
mounted the royal elephant ; and, accompanied by 
torch-bearers in full regal state, he passed forth from 
Rajagaha and proceeded in the direction of Jivaka's 
Mango Grove. 

Then as he drew near the Mango Grove, King 
Ajatasattu was seized with fear and alarm, all the hair 
on his body bristling with affright. And in great dread, 
agitated and apprehensive, he said to Jivaka : 

" Surely you have not laid a snare for me ? Surely 
you are not playing me false ? Surely you are not 
delivering me to mine enemies ? How is it that from all 
this great company of Bhikkhus not a sound is to be heard, 
not a sneeze, not a clearing of the throat ? " 

" Be not afraid, Maharaja. I lay no snare for my 
liege-lord. I play not my liege-lord false. I deliver not 
my liege-lord to his enemies. Pass on, Maharaja, pass on ! 
There in the pavilion the lamps are all lit." 

Then on his elephant, King Ajatasattu advanced as 
far as the elephant could go, and then, dismounting, on 
foot approached the door of the pavilion. Thither 
arrived, he turned to Jivaka, asking : * But where, good 
Jivaka, is the Blessed One ? " 

" That is the Blessed One there, Maharaja, sitting 
facing eastwards by the central pillar, with all the 
Bhikkhus around him." 

Then King Ajatasattu drew near where sat the 

( 9 ) 

Blessed One and stood at one side. And, standing there, 
the king looked out over the assembly of Bhikkhus, all 
still and silent, quiet as a quiet lake, and his feelings found 
vent in these words : " If only my son Udayi Bhadda 
might attain to such calm as this company of Bhikkhus 
here enjoys ! " 

" Goes thy thought, Maharaja, whither affection 
draws ! " 

" Dear to me, good sir, is the Prince Udayi Bhadda. 
I would he might know such tranquillity as is known by 
these Bhikkhus here." 

And with reverential salute to the Blessed One, and 
extended joined hands towards the Bhikkhus, the king 
took a seat at one side. Then seated, addressing the 
Blessed One he said : 

" I would wish to enquire of the Blessed One touching 
a certain matter, if the Blessed One is pleased to permit 
me a question." 

" Ask, Maharaja, whatever you wish." 

" There are, Reverend Sir, a number of common 
callings and professions such as chariot-driving, soldiering, 
cooking, weaving, basket-making, accountantship, and 
others of kindred sort. All who practise such callings 
and professions, here and now as presently visible fruit 
of the same, earn their livelihood by them. Following 
such avocations they procure comfort and cheer for them- 
selves and parents and families and friends. They are 
able to maintain the practice of giving to ascetics and 
brahmins, which practice makes for what is elevated, for 
what leads to the heaven-states, is fruitful in happiness 
hereafter, conducting to realms of bliss. Now, Reverend 
Sir, are you able to point to any such here and now, pre- 
sently visible fruit of the homeless life ? " 

You admit, Maharaja, of having asked this question 
of other ascetics and recluses ? " 

" I admit, Reverend Sir, of having done as you say." 

" If you have no objection, Maharaja, tell what 
answer they made you." 

" Where the Blessed One sits, or any like to the 
Blessed One, I have no objection at all to telling." 

" Then, Maharaja, speak." 

" At one time, Reverend Sir, I went to Purana Contem- 
Kassapa, and, after exchange of the customary greetings g^2 
and courtesies, I took a seat at one side and asked of him Beliefs 
the question I but now have asked of the Blessed One. 

* And Purana Kassapa replied to my question by 

( io ) 

saying that to the worker of harm as to the instigator of 
the working of harm, to the killer, to the thief, to the 
adulterer, to the liar, no demerit accrues — that though a 
man wrought the utmost havoc imaginable, no demerit 
follows thereform ; and that though a man were to work 
the utmost good conceivable, neither does any merit ensue 
from all his good doing ; and that in alms-giving or self- 
control or truth-speaking, merit or approach to merit 
there is none. 

" Thus, Reverend Sir, to my question as to the 
presently visible fruit of the homeless life did Purana 
Kassapa respond with a dissertation upon the equal 
indifference of every kind of action. It was, Reverend 
Sir, as though one should enquire about mangoes and be 
told about bread-fruit ; or ask about bread-fruit and be 
told about mangoes. 

" However, Reverend Sir, I thought within myself : 
' How could such as I think of giving offence to any ascetic 
or recluse in my kingdom. So I expressed neither 
pleasure nor displeasure at the words of Purana Kassapa : 
albeit dissatisfied I let fall no word of dissatisfaction ; but 
without either approving or disapproving of his answer, 
rising from my seat I went my way. 

" Then, Reverend Sir, I went with my question to 
Makkhali Gosala, and he set out to tell me that the fate 
of every creature is firmly fixed past all possibility of 
change by any effort of will ; and that only when, for wise 
as for foolish, and beyond any power of theirs to hasten or 
delay, the due period of their transmigration through 
forms has run its course — only then do they make an end 
of suffering. 

" Thus, Reverend Sir, being asked about the present 
fruits of the homeless life, did Makkhali Gosala answer 
with his doctrine of purification by transmigration, exactly 
like a man who, when asked about about bread-fruit, tells 
you all about mangoes. However, not caring to give 
umbrage to any homeless one within my realm, albeit but 
little satisfied, I said neither yea nor nay to his speech, but 
rose and departed. 

" Next, Reverend Sir, I went to Ajita Kesakambali, 
and he in reply to my question as to the present fruit of 
the homeless life let me know that all talk about gifts and 
sacrifices and good or evil consequences thereof — all 
question of this world or any other, or of the realisation 
of any beyond — was idle folly, lying nonsense. He said 
that when a man dies, the elements of which his body is 

( II ) 

compounded go back whence they came, and all con- 
nected with him is at utter end for ever just as though he 
had never been. 

" In this way, Reverend Sir, with his annihilationistic 
doctrine, did Ajita Kesakambali reply to my question 
about the present fruit of the homeless life. Asked about 
mangoes, he answered about bread-fruit. However, 
though far from satisfied, I said nothing one way or 
another, but rose and took my departure. 

" Then next, Reverend Sir, I took my question to 
Pakudha Kaccayana, and he in his answer carefully 
explained to me that nothing anywhere existed save the 
elements earth, water, fire, air, happiness, misery, and life 
— these seven ; that nothing is ever done by anybody to 
anybody ; that when one man splits another man's head 
with his sword, he does no more than pass his weapon 
between the interstices of the several elements. In such 
wise did Pakudha Kaccayana answer my question about 
the present fruit of the homeless life — telling me about 
another thing altogether, like one asked about bread-fruit 
and explaining about mangoes. So from him too I turned 
away in silent dissatisfaction. 

" After that, Reverend Sir, I went to Nigantha 
Nataputta to see what reply he could give to my question. 
But all his answer was only to expound the ' fourfold 
restraint ' as practised in his sect. So I rose saying 
nothing of agreement or disagreement and turned away 
dissatisfied from him also. 

'* Then last, Reverend Sir, I went to Sanjaya Belatthi- 
putta and asked him if he could tell me of any here and 
now presently visible fruit of the homeless life similar to 
that obtained by those who follow worldly callings. And 
Sanjaya Belatthiputta made answer thus : 

" ' Should you ask me " Is there or is there not 
another world ? Are there or are there not beings who 
come to be without physical agency ? Is there or is there 
not fruit of good and evil deeds ? Does or does not the 
Tathagata exist beyond death ? " — if I believed that the 
case was so, or that it was not so, then I would reply, 
" The case is so," or " The case is not so." But thus I do 
not think. And that way I do not think either. Neither 
do I think any other way. Neither do 1 not think this 
way, or that way, or any other way/ 

" Such, Reverend Sir, was the all-confused reply I 
received from Sanjaya Belatthiputta to my question con- 
cerning the present fruit of the homeless life. Of a truth, 

( 12 ) 

Reverend Sir, it was as though one asked about mangoes 
should answer about bread-fruit, or asked about bread- 
fruit should answer about mangoes. And I thought 
within myself : ' Among all these ascetics and recluses, 
this is an entire fool, an utter muddle-pate. . How, being 
asked a plain question about the presently visible fruit of 
the homeless life, can he answer so utter confusedly ? 
But I must not cause offence to any ascetic or recluse in 
my kingdom.' So, signifying neither approval nor dis- 
approval, giving no token of my dissatisfaction, neither 
supporting nor opposing his words, I rose from my seat 
and took my departure. 

" And now, Reverend Sir, I bring my question to ask 
it of the Blessed One : Since all these common, worldy 
callings here and now have visible profit for those who 
follow them, can you, Reverend Sir, make known to me 
what is the here and now presently visible fruit of the 
homeless life ? " 

" That can I, Maharaja. But on my side I also would 

ask a question, and, as it shall please thee, do thou reply. 

The " What think you, Maharaja ? Suppose that among 

Lowest, your men you have a slave, a busy worker who gets up in 

Fruitof tne morning before you and goes to bed at night after you, 

the Reii- all eager to know what he can do for you, anxious to give 

gious satisfaction in deed and in word, looking into your face for 

Life. the least sign of your wish. And suppose such a slave to 

think to himself : 'Wonderful, marvellous indeed, is the 

outcome, the fruit of deeds of merit ! Here is this King 

Ajatasattu, a man just as I am a man. And this king 

revels in every enjoyment of all the five senses as though 

he were a god. I, however, am his slave and drudge, in 

the morning rising before he rises, and at night lying down 

only after he has lain down, busy, anxious to please, 

ready to run at a nod. If only I could make merit like 

his ! How if I were to take off hair and beard, and put on 

the yellow robes, and take to the homeless life ! ' And 

suppose that after a time this slave should do as he said, 

and, vowing himself to homelessness, should live restrained 

in deed, in word, and in thought, satisfied with simple 

food and shelter, delighting in solitude. And suppose 

that your people should make this known to you, saying : 

' May it please Your Highness, does Your Highness know 

that his slave that aforetime waited upon him to do his 

bidding at a sign, has gone forth from the household life 

and now lives controlled in thought, word, and deed, 

contented with little, pleasuring in seclusion ? * Now, 

( i3 ) 

would you say : ' Let the man come back to me. Let 
him be my slave, busy early and late, as before at my beck 
and call' ? " 

" No, indeed, Reverend Sir. In such case we should 
salute him reverentially, and, respectfully rising, invite 
him to be seated. We should also see that he was pro- 
vided with the four necessaries of the homeless life — 
clothing, food, shelter, and medicaments for use in time 
of sickness ; and arrange for all proper care to be taken 
of him." 

" What think you, Maharaja ? In such case, is 
there a presently visible fruit of the homeless life ? Or is 
there not ? " 

" Indeed, Reverend Sir, in such a case there is a 
presently visible, fruit of the homeless life." 

" This, then, Maharaja, is the first, here and now 
presently visible fruit of the homeless life recognised by 

" But, Reverend Sir, can you point out any other 
here and now presently visible fruit of the homeless 
life ? " 

" That can I, Maharaja. Let me ask you a question, 
and do you answer as shall seem to you good. Suppose 
among your people there is a husbandman, a head of a 
household, a diligent man, a producer of increase. And 
suppose him, beholding his sovereign's exalted state, to be 
seized of desire to earn a like reward of merit, and shav- 
ing off hair and beard and giving up what goods and gear 
he possesses, much or little, and all his circle of relatives 
and acquaintances, or small or great, to take to the home- 
less life. If now you were told of this man and what he 
had done, would you order him back to his husbandry and 
household life again ? " 

" No, indeed, Reverend Sir. I should receive him 
with all respect and provide for all his just requirements." 

" That being so, Maharaja, is or is not this a presently 
visible fruit of the homeless life ? " 

" This being so, it is a presently visible fruit of the 
homeless life." 

" Then, Maharaja, here you have shown you a second, 
here and now presently visible fruit of the homeless 

" But, Reverend Sir, can you point out to me another 
here and now presently visible fruit of the homeless life, 
more choice, more excellent than these presently visible 
fruits ? " 

( 14 ) 

" That can I, Maharaja. Hearken and give good 
heed and I shall speak." 

"lam all attention, Reverend Sir," replied to the 
Blessed One, Ajatasattu, King of Magadha. And the 
Blessed One spoke and said : 

" Suppose, Maharaja, that here in the world a Tatha- 
gata makes his appearance, an Exalted One, a Supremely 
Awakened One, perfect in knowledge and in conduct, an 
Auspicious One, a knower of all three worlds, an incom- 
parable guide to such as desire guidance, a teacher of gods 
and men, an Awakened One, a Blessed One. And having 
of himself known and comprehended this universe of gods 
and men with its deities, its Maras and Brahmas, its 
ascetics and recluses, the entire race, he imparts his know- 
ledge to others ; in spirit and letter both, setting forth 
the truth, excellent in its origin, excellent in its on-going, 
excellent in its end, making known the holy life, the 
altogether perfect and pure. 

" And this truth some householder hears, or mayhap 
some son of a householder, or one of lowly birth. And 
hearing this truth, such an one is taken with faith in the 
Tathagata. And wholly seized of such faith, he considers 
within himself : ' Cramped and confined is household 
life, a den of dust. But the life of the homeless one is as 
the open air of heaven. Hard is it for him who abides in 
household life to live out flawlessly the holy life, the alto- 
gether perfect and pure. How if I put on the yellow robes 
and follow the homeless life ! ■ 

" And suppose that, not long after, he gives up his 
property, little or much, leaves behind kith and kin, or few 
or many, and shearing off hair and beard, and donning the 
garb of the homeless, goes forth from his home intohome- 

" And now, vowed to homelessness, he lives a life of 
strict restraint in conformity entire to the Rule. Accom- 
plished in right conduct, he shrinks from the least of 
faults. He practises to observe the precepts of good. 
Morality He holds to the fitting both in speech and action. Pure 
Conduct * n ^ s manner °f living, attained to right conduct, guard- 
ing the door of his senses, conscious and recollected, he has 

" And how, Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu attained to 

right conduct ? 

The Five " The Bhikkhu, refraining from all taking of life, 

Precepts, shuns taking the life of anything that lives. Putting 

away club and sword, he is mild and merciful, kind and 

( 15 ) 

compassionate toward every living creature. He abstains 
from the taking of what has not been given him, shuns 
taking things ungiven. Taking only what is offered him, 
awaiting such gifts, he abides heart-free from all thievish 
intent. Refraining from unchastity, he lives the pure, 
the chaste life. He shuns the sexual act, the vulgar, the 
common. Abstaining from lying, he shuns the speech of 
untruth. He speaks the truth, holds by the truth. 
Staunch and trustworthy, he is no worldly deceiver. 
Abstaining from tale-bearing, he shuns slanderous speech. 
What he hears in this quarter he does not repeat in that, 
so as to make trouble for the people here. And what he 
hears in that quarter be does not repeat in this, so as to 
make trouble for the people there. Those at variance he 
brings together ; and those already at one he fortifies. 
Concord pleases him ; concord rejoices him ; in concord 
is all his delight. The words of his mouth all make for 
concord. Refraining from speech that is harsh, he avoids 
rough speech. Whatsoever words are harmless, pleasant 
to the ear, affectionate, heart-moving, courteous, charm- 
ing and giving delight to all that hear them — such are the 
words that he speaks. Refraining from idle chatter, he 
shuns unprofitable conversation. Speaking in proper 
season, in accordance with fact, to the purpose, agreeable 
with the Doctrine and Discipline, his words are a precious 
treasure, full of appropriate comparisons, discriminating, 
and to the point. Such is the Bhikkhu's right conduct. 

" And he abstains from doing any injury to seeds or 
growing plants. He partakes of but one meal a day, eats 
no evening meal ; he avoids eating out of proper season. 
He keeps away from singing, dancing, and theatrical 
entertainments. He abstains from the use of garlands, 
scents, ointments, ornaments, personal adornments of 
every kind. Big or high beds he does not use. Gold or 
silver, uncooked grain or raw meat, women or girls, 
slaves (male or female), goats or sheep, fowls or swine, 
elephants, cattle, horses, mares, fields or lands — all he 
abstains from accepting. He has naught to do with 
fetching and carrying messages, with buying and selling, 
with untrue balances, false weights and measures. He 
shuns the crooked ways of bribery, deception, and fraud. 
He holds aloof from maiming, murder, abduction, high- 
way robbery, wholesale plundering, and every deed of 
violence. Such is the Bhikkhu's right conduct. 

" And inasmuch as some ascetics and recluses, while 
living on the food provided by faithful believers, yet 

( 16 ) 

remain given to injuring growing plants, and he abstains 
from all such injuring ; and some are given to the use of 
food and drink which they have stored up, and he abstains 
from all such storing up of comestibles ; and some are 
given to frequenting places of amusement of all kinds, and 
he keeps away from all such places ; and some indulge in 
many kinds of games and pastimes, and he entirely 
abstains from such ; and some are given to the use of 
luxurious couches and wrappings, and he takes naught 
to do with such ; and some are given to using ointments 
and powders and other gear for the tricking out of the 
body, and he has naught to do with any such ; and some 
are given to gossip about all manner of worldly things, and 
he takes naught to do with such talk ; and some are given 
to argument and disputation for pure disputation's sake, 
and he withholds from all vain wrangling ; and some are 
given to acting as bearers of messages, and he withholds 
from such ; and some are given to cozening and canting 
for the sake of gain, and he withholds from such fraud and 
hypocrisy ; and some ascetics and recluses are given to 
acting as astrologers and diviners and soothsayers, as 
exorcisers, as reciters of incantations, as physicians, 1 and 
he takes naught to do with any such mean employ ; — inas- 
much as all this is so, this is the Bhikkhu's right conduct. 
" And such a Bhikkhu, Maharaja, thus accomplished 
in right conduct, in respect of this his restraint in accord- 
ance with right conduct, sees naught whatsoever to cause 
him to fear. Even as a warrior king, having vanquished all 
his enemies, nowhere sees cause for fear from any enemy, 
even so is it with the Bhikkhu thus attained to right con- 
duct. Accomplished in this noble body of precepts of 
good, he enjoys a cloudless happiness within. Even thus, 
Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu accomplished in right conduct. 

Watch- "Arid how, Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu guarded in 

fulness respect of the door of his senses ? 

^? d . " The Bhikkhu, Maharaja, having with the eye per- 

of the* 10 ceived a form, with the ear a sound, with the nose an odour, 
with the tongue a flavour, with the body a contact, or with 
the mind an idea, is not taken up with the image thereof, 
takes no minute note of the same. For, inasmuch as the 
organs of sense being unrestrained, occasion is thereby 

1 Of course a Bhikkhu possessed of medical skill may practise his art 
upon such of his fellow-Bhikkhus as may be in need of his ministra- 
tions. He may also upon occasion treat householders for their 
ailments, but always without pecuniary reward. 

( 17 ) 

given for the arising of craving and unhappiness, and things 
evil and insanitary, he practises restraint of the organs of 
sense, keeps a watch upon them, brings them into subjec- 
tion, and, attained to this noble restraint of the senses, hap- 
piness untainted within is his. Even thus, Maharaja, is the 
Bhikkhu guarded in respect of the door of the senses. 

" And how, Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu accomplished Recoi- 
in recollectedness, in clear consciousness ? lected- 

" The Bhikkhu, Maharaja, is clearly conscious in all ness * 
his comings and goings, in looking off and in looking close 
by, in bending his arm and in stretching out his arm, in 
carrying his bowl, in wearing his robes, in eating and drink- 
ing, in chewing and swallowing, in attending to the calls 
of nature, in walking, in standing still, in sitting down. 
Asleep or awake, speaking or keeping silence, at all times 
is he clearly conscious. Thus, Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu 
accomplished in recollectedness, in clear consciousness. 

" And how, Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu attained to Content- 
content ? ment. 

" The Bhikkhu, Maharaja, is content with the robes 
required for the covering of his body, with the food 
required for the satisfaction of his stomach. And 
whithersoever he goes, he takes with him only such things 
as are needed. Even as the winged bird, whithersoever it 
flies, bears with it only its wings, so the Bhikkhu is con- 
tent with what he receives of needed clothing and food ; 
and journeying, takes with him only needful requisites. 
Thus, Maharaja, is the Bhikkhu attained to content. 

"And thus accomplished in this noble body of Practice 
precepts of good, accomplished in this noble restraint of o f Medi- 
the organs of sense, accomplished in this noble recollected- tatlon - 
ness, accomplished in this noble content, he seeks out for 
himself a secluded place of abode, at the foot of a forest 
tree, in some rocky recess, in a mountain cave, in a place 
of tombs, in the heart of the jungle, or on a heap of straw 
under the open sky. And having returned from his 
begging round and partaken of his meal, he sits down with 
legs crossed under him, body held erect, and deliberately 
practises recollectedness. Putting away from him worldly Suppres- 
craving, he abides with thoughts free from craving; he5J? nofthe 
purges his mind of craving. Putting away from him the Hind- 
stain of ill-will, he abides benevolent of mind. Kindly ranees, 
and compassionate toward everything that lives, he clears 
his mind of the defilement of malevolence. Putting from 
him sloth and torpor, he dwells vigilant and alert. Per- 
ception lit up, recollected, clearly conscious, he clears from 

( i8 ) 

his mind all dullness and heaviness. Ridding himself of 
restlessness and broodiness, he abides composed. His 
inward thoughts made calm, he empties his mind of all 
disquietude. Putting away from him indecision, he 
dwells delivered from dubiety. No longer making ques- 
tion of what things are profitable, he cleanses his mind of 
Craving " Suppose, Maharaja, that a man, having borrowed 

to™ D^t a sum °* monev ' should engage in business, and that his 
* ventures should succeed, so that he should be able to 
wipe out his debt first, and, with what remained over, 
take to himself a wife. Such a man would rejoice thereat 
and be glad in mind, saying : ' I that aforetime borrowed 
money to engage in business, have succeeded in my affairs, 
have cleared off my debt, and over and above have got 
me a wife/ 
ill-will " Or suppose, Maharaja, that a man has been sick, 

compared in great pain, seriously ill, unable to partake of food, 
ness 1Ck ~ exceedingly weak in body ; and that after a time this 
man recovers from his sickness, takes his food again, and 
becomes strong of body. Such a man would rejoice 
thereat and be glad in mind, saying : * I that aforetime 
was sick, suffering and weak, behold ! now am I cured of 
that illness, again strong in body/ 
Sloth and " Or suppose that a man who has been bound in 
Tor P° r prison, after a time is released safe and sound, without loss 
to^ison. or damage to any of his property. Such a man would be 
glad at this, and say : ' I that before was bound in prison 
now am restored to liberty with all my property intact/ 
Restless " Or suppose a man to be a slave, not his own master, 

Brooding a { { ne beck and call of another, unable to go about at his 
compare Qwn ^^ ^^ ^ n ^ SU pp 0Se #&& after a time this man is 
Slavery, freed from his servitude, becomes his own master, is no 
more thrall to another, is a freedman, able to go whither- 
soever he will. Such a man will be glad and say : ' I that 
of old was the slave and servant of another now am a freed 
man and may go wheresoever I list/ 
Donbt " Or suppose that a man with much goods and wealth 

compared j s U p on a desert journey, and that after a time, safe and 
Desert sound, he leaves the desert behind him without having 
journey, suffered the loss of any of his gear. Such a man would 
rejoice, saying : ' I who but late was toiling through the 
desert am now returned in safety with all my goods 

" Even thus, as a debt, as an illness, as imprisonment, 
as thraldom, as a desert journey, does the Bhikkhu regard 

( 19 ) 

these Five Impediments while as yet they are not banished 
from within him. But like a debt that has been cancelled, 
like recovery from an illness, like release from prison, like 
becoming a freedman, like safe soil — even so does the 
Bhikkhu regard the banishing of these Five Obstacles 
from within him. 

" And well perceiving that these Five Hindrances 
have ceased from within him, gladness springs up ; and 
from this gladness joy is born, and being joyed, his body 
is in quiet ; and his body quieted, he experiences well- 
being, and in that sense of well-being his mind comes to 

" Then, sundered from desires and all things evil, but The First 
exercising cognition and reflection, in the joy and bliss that Jkana. 
are born of detachment, he attains to the First High 
Ecstasy ; and this body he soaks, saturates, fills and pene- 
trates with the joy and bliss that are born of detachment, 
so that there is no single part of the body that is not pene- 
trated with the joy and bliss that are born of detachment. 

" Just as a competent bath-attendant sprinkles the 
soap-powder upon a platter, and kneads and works the 
water into it, until the entire lump of soap is thoroughly 
blent and pervaded with moisture without and within, so 
penetrated with the moisture that not a bit of it falls, 
even thus does the Bhikkhu completely soak, saturate, 
fill, and penetrate the body with the joy and bliss that are 
born of detachment. 

" And this, Maharaja, is a presently visible fruit of the 
homeless life, choicer and more excellent than the last. 

" Again, Maharaja, stilling cognition and reflection, The 
through deep inward quietude the mind emerging sole, Second 
having ceased from cognition and reflection, in the joy J hamu 
and bliss that are born of concentration, the Bhikkhu 
attains to the Second High Ecstasy ; and this body he 
soaks, saturates, fills, penetrates with the joy and bliss 
that are born of concentration so that there is no single 
part of the body that is not penetrated with the joy and 
bliss of concentration. 

" Suppose, Maharaja, that there is a sheet of water 
over a spring, with no inlet of water from any other 
quarter whatsoever, east or west, north or south ; and 
suppose that never a cloud in the rainy season unlades its 
burden into it ; then that pool, with the cool spring Water 
welling up beneath, will be soaked, saturated, filled, pene- 
trated with these same cool waters, so that there will be 
no part of the sheet of water that will not be penetrated by 

B 2 

( 20 ) 




the cool spring waters. And even thus does the Bhikkhu 
completely fill and penetrate the body. with the joy and 
bliss that are born of concentration. 

" And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" And further, Maharaja, joyous, freed from passion, 
even-minded, the Bhikkhu dwells collected of mind, 
clearly conscious, and in the body tastes the bliss of which 
the Noble Ones say : ' The man of even and collected 
mind is blest/ and so he attains to the Third High Ecstasy. 
And this body he saturates and penetrates with a bliss 
apart from active joy, so that there is no portion of his 
body that is not penetrated with that bliss apart from 
active joy. 

" Suppose, Maharaja, that there is a pond of lotuses, 
blue, and red, and white, all growing and thriving in the 
water, immersed in water, deriving their sustenance from 
the covering water ; from head to foot those lotuses will 
be soaked, saturated, filled and penetrated by the cool 
water ; there will be no part of them that is not penetrated 
by the cool water. And even thus does the Bhikkhu com- 
pletely penetrate his body with a bliss apart from active 


M And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible fruit 
of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent than 
the last. 

" And further Maharaja : Pleasure and pain now left 
behind, with the fading away of all past joy and sorrow, 
in the painless, pleasureless, utter purity of a mind wholly 
calmed and collected, the Bhikkhu attains to the fourth 
High Ecstasy ; and he seats himself and envelops his 
body in cleansed and purified thought until there is no 
single part of his body that is not enveloped in cleansed 
and purified thought. Just as a man might sit down and 
envelop himself, head and all, in a clean white cloth, so 
that no part of his body remains uncovered by the clean 
white cloth, so does the Bhikkhu sit down and completely 
envelop his body in cleansed and purified thought. 

" And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

M And now with thoughts tranquillised, purified, 
cleansed, stainless, purged of impurity, pliant, serviceable, 
the Body. £ rm |y established, unshakable, he directs, he bends his 
mind toward wise insight. He cognises : ' This visible 




tion on 

( 21 ) 

body of mine has shape, is made up of so much solid, so 
much fluid, so much heat, so much motive force, is come 
of a mother and father, is sustained by food hard and soft 
— a perishable, erodable, pulverisable, breakable, dis- 
memberable thing ! And with this thing also is my 
consciousness entangled, in this tied up.' 

" It is, Maharaja, as though there were a gem, a 
precious stone, gleaming, of the first water, eight-faceted, 
splendidly cut, clear, translucent, flawless, altogether 
perfect, and it had a blue, or an orange, or a red, or a 
white, or a yellow thread strung through it. Any man 
possessed of sight, taking such a jewel in his hand, would 
clearly perceive : ' Here is a noble jewel, finely cut, 
translucent, flawless, with a coloured thread strung 
through it.' * Even so, Maharaja, does the Bhikkhu 
clearly perceive his body just as it is. 

And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" Pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu now directs The 
his mind toward the imaging forth of a mind-made ^ e £ tal 
representation of body. And from this body he images Q i t he 
forth another body, a mind-made form, with all its parts Body, 
and members complete, no organ lacking. 

" Suppose, Maharaja, that a man were to pull a stalk 
of grass out of its sheath, such a man would know : * Here 
is sheath ; here is grass-stalk. The grass-stalk is one 
thing ; another is the sheath. From the sheath the grass- 
stalk was pulled out.' And in similar wise would he 
speak of a sword drawn forth from its scabbard, or of a 
snake taken out from its slough. Even thus, Maharaja, 
does the Bhikkhu from this body image forth another. 

* And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" Pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu now directs The 
his mind towards the various supernormal powers. Being acquire- 


1 The idea is that a man with eyes in his head, and using them for normal 
the purpose for which eyes are meant to be used — for looking and TY^f^f 
seeing— perceives just what there is to be perceived, and nothing else (■*«»»*)• 
beside. That is to say, he does not import into his picture of things 
anything of the products of fancy or imagination ; he does not tell 
himself that anything else is present but what he actually finds 
present. An exposition of the Teaching of the Buddha that would be 
essentially complete might be founded upon this one text of direct, 
accurate, and unadulterated observation of whatever is to be observed 
in any domain, and more particularly in that of the psychological. 

( 22 ) 

of Matter 



into the 
Minds of 

single in form, he is able to appear as manifold ; and hav- 
ing appeared as manifold, again he can appear as single. 
He can appear and disappear in any place at will. He 
can pass through walls, barriers, or rocks as easily as 
through air. He can sink into and rise up out of the solid 
ground as though it were water. He can go upon water 
as though it were dry land. He can pass through the air 
like a winged bird ; and in the greatness of supernormal 
power and might, hold and handle the very sun and moon, 
wielding the body at will even up to the realm of Brahma. 

"It is, Maharaja, as though a skilled potter or 
potter's apprentice from well prepared clay were to make, 
to manage whatsoever kind of vessel he desired ; or as if a 
worker in ivory should get whatever he wanted out of his 
ivory, or a worker in gold whatever he wanted from his 
gold. Even so, Maharaja, does the Bhikkhu exercise 
whatsoever supernormal power he desires. 

" And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

u Pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu now directs 
his mind toward the faculty of the Heavenly Ear ; and 
with this clear, superhuman, celestial hearing he hears 
both kinds of sounds, those celestial and those human, 
those distant and those near. 

" Suppose, Maharaja, that a man travelling along a 
road were to hear the rattle of a kettle-drum, or the sound 
of a tabor, or the tumult of conch-horns and drums 
together. Such a man would know at once — 'There is 
the rattle of a kettle-drum ! ' or ' That is the sound of a 
tabor ! ' or ' There goes the tumult of conch-horns and 
drums together i ' Even thus, Maharaja, does the 
Bhikkhu exercise his Heavenly Ear. 

* And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" Pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu now directs 
his mind toward the intimate knowledge of the minds of 
others. With his mind he penetrates and knows the 
inmost hearts of other beings, of other persons. He knows 
of the mind that is given to Passion : ' This mind is given 
to Passion ' ; and he knows of the mind that is purged of 
Passion : 'This mind is purged of Passion.' He knows 
of the mind that is held of Hatred : ' This mind is held of 
Hatred ' ; and he knows of the mind that is free from 
Hatred: ' This mind is free from Hatred.' He knows of 

( 2 3 ) 

the mind that is sunk in Delusion : ' This mind is sunk in 
Delusion ' ; and he knows of the mind that is done with 
Delusion : ' This mind is done with Delusion.' He knows, 
even as they are, such minds as are collected, such as are 
aspiring, such as are noble, such as are calm and concen- 
trated, and such as are emancipated. And just as they are 
he also knows such minds as are wandering, such as are 
grovelling, such as are vulgar, such as are perturbed and 
distracted, and such as are in thrall. 

" Suppose, Maharaja, that a woman or a man or a 
stripling, young and got up in their best, should examine 
the reflection of their face in a clear mirror or a pot of 
water, if it had a speck on it they would know : ' My face 
has a speck on it.' And if it had no speck on it, they 
would know : ' My face has no speck on it.' Even so, 
Maharaja, does the Bhikkhu know, just as they are, the 
minds of others. 

" And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" Pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu now directs Remem- 
his mind toward the recollection and recognition of pre- France of 
vious modes of existence. And he calls to mind bis various Oving^ 
lots in former lives : first one life, then two lives, then 
three, four, five, ten, twenty, up to fifty lives ; then a 
thousand lives : then an hundred thousand lives. Then 
he recalls the epochs of many .a world-arising ; then the 
epochs of many a world-destruction ; then the epochs of 
many world-arisings and world-destructions together. 
1 There was I. That was my name. To that family I 
belonged. This was my position. That was my occupa- 
tion. Such and such were the weal and woe I experienced. 
Thus was my life's ending. Thence departing, there I 
came into existence anew. There now was I. This was 
now my name. To this family I now belonged. This 
was my rank now. This was my occupation. Such and 
such were the fresh weal and woe I underwent. Thus was 
now my life's ending. Departing once more, I came into 
existence again elsewhere.' In such wise does the 
Bhikkhu remember the characteristics and particulars 
of his varied lots in times past. 

" Imagine, Maharaja, that a man goes from his own 
village to another village, and from that village to another, 
and from this village back again to his own. Such a man 
would know : ' I came from my own village to that village. 
There I stood like that, sat down thus, so talked, thus was 

( 2 4 ) 

tion into 
the Pro- 
cess of 
Life and 
Results of 

ledge of 

tion of 

silent. And from that village I came to this other village, 
and there in such and such ways I stood, sat down, talked, 
and kept silence ; and now I am back again in my own 
village.' Even thus, Maharaja, does the Bhikkhu recall 
his previous modes of existence. 

" And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" Pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu now directs 
his mind toward the perception of the disappearing and 
the reappearing of beings. With the Heavenly Eye, the 
purified, the supernormal, he beholds beings disappear 
from one state of existence and reappear in another, the 
base and the noble, the beautiful and the ugly, the happy 
and the miserable, each reappearing according to their 
deeds. ' These beings, alas ! are given to evil ways in 
deeds and in words and in thoughts. They revile the 
Noble Ones, hold perverted views, and following perverted 
views incur an evil lot. Upon the break-up of the body 
after death, they are reborn in states of wretchedness and 
misery and suffering. These other beings, however, given 
to ways that are good in deeds and in words and in 
thoughts, not making mock of the Noble Ones, holding 
right views and reaping reward of the same, upon the 
dissolution of the physical form they arise after death in 
realms of happiness.' 

M Imagine, Maharaja, that a tall house stood at a 
place where four ways met, and that a man possessed 'of 
sight, posted on the roof -terrace of this house, should 
observe some men going into and coming out of a house, 
some passing up and down the streets, and some seated 
at the meeting-place of the ways. Such a man would 
know : ' Those men enter the house, these leave it ; those 
walk about the streets, these take a seat where the ways 
meet.' Even thus, Maharaja, does the Bhikkhu perceive 
with the Heavenly Eye the disappearing and reappearing 
of beings, each according to their deeds. 

" And this, Maharaja, is another presently visible 
fruit of the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent 
than the last. 

" Then, pacified, clarified in mind, the Bhikkhu 
directs his mind toward the knowledge of the Destruction 
of the Banes. And he clearly cognises : ' This is 111.' He 
clearly cognises : ' This is the Arising of 111.' He clearly 
cognises : ' This is the Ceasing of 111.' He clearly cog- 
nises : ' This is the Way that leads to the Ceasing of 111/ 

( 25 ) 

All this he cognises in accordance with truth and fact. 
And he clearly cognises : ' These are the Banes/ * He 
clearly cognises : ' This is the Arising of the Banes/ He 
clearly cognises : ' This is the Ceasing of the Banes/ He 
clearly cognises : ' This is the Way that leads to the 
Ceasing of the Banes/ All this he cognises in accordance 
with truth and fact. And thus cognising, thus beholding, 
his mind is delivered from the Bane of Passion, his mind 
is released from the Bane of Craving for Existence, his 
mind is set free from the Bane of Ignorance. And this 
knowledge is his : * In being delivered, I have deliverance/ 
Clearly he cognises : ' Rebirth is at an end ; the holy life 
fulfilled ; done all that was to do ; this world is no more 
for ever/ 

" Imagine, Maharaja, that up among the hills there 
is a tarn, clear, tranquil, translucent ; and that a man 
possessed of sight stands on its bank and looks down at 
the shells and pebbles and sand below, and at the droves 
of fish as they move hither and thither, or remain still. 
Such a man would know : ' This tarn is clear, tranquil, 
translucent. There are the shells and the pebbles and 
the sand ; and there are the shoals of fish darting about 
or staying still/ Even thus, Maharaja, does the Bhikkhu Realising 
as clearly cognise : ' This is 111, this the Coming of 111, the Four 
this the Ending of 111, this the Way that leads to the § £5^ 
Ending of 111. There is Bane, there the Origin of Bane, 
there the Destruction of Bane, there the Path that con- 
ducts to the Destruction of Bane. ' And thus knowing, thus 
perceiving, he wins free from the Banes of Passion and 
Lust of Living and Ignorance. And this knowledge is 
his : ' Deliverance is mine. Birth is ended, the holy life 
lived out, done all that was to do, the world at an end for 
ever ! ' 

" And this, Maharaja, is a presently visible fruit of 
the homeless life yet choicer and more excellent than any 
that have gone before. Yea, Maharaja, than this visibly 
present fruit of the homeless life, other more choice or 
more excellent there is none." 

When thus the Blessed One had made an end of 
speaking, King Ajatasattu of Magadha spoke and said : 

" Excellent, Reverend Sir, O most excellent ! It is, 
Reverend Sir, as though what had been thrown down 

1 The " Banes " are those things baneful to perfect peace of mind — 
sensual craving, craving for conditioned existence, attachment to 
views or opinions, and ignorance of the real facts of conditioned 
existence, as of the way to deliverance therefrom. 

( 26 ) 

were set up straight again, what had been covered over 
revealed, his right way shown to one gone astray, a lamp 
brought into a dark place so that any one with eyes can 
see. Even thus by the Blessed One has the Truth been 
made known. And I, Reverend Sir, I put my confidence 
in the Blessed One, and in the Truth, and in the Order of 
Bhikkhus. Misdeed is mine, Reverend Sir ; I have fallen 
into evil, being foolish, all astray, all amiss. Making for 
the throne, I took the life of my righteous father, the just 
king. May the Blessed One accept this as my confession 
of fault, in order to my restraint for the future." 

u Verily, Maharaja, into evil have you fallen in acting 
thus. But, Maharaja, in so far as having seen your fault 
to be fault, you honestly acknowledge it such, we accept 
this acknowledgment from you. For this is even the way 
in the discipline of the Noble Ones, that when any one 
recognises his fault as fault, and honestly confesses it such, 
in the future he attains to restraint.' ' 

When the Blessed One thus had spoken, King 
Ajatasattu, addressing the Blessed One, said : 

" But now, Reverend Sir, it is time for us to go. We 
have much business on hand, much to do." 

" If now it seems to thee time, Maharaja." 

Then King Ajatasattu, pleased and delighted with 
the words of the Blessed One, rose from his seat, and, 
saluting the Blessed One with reverence, passed round 
with his right shoulder toward him, and so took his 

And not long after King Ajatasattu had gone, 
addressing the Bhikkhus, the Blessed One said : 

" Moved was this king, O Bhikkhus ; much stirred 
was this king, O Bhikkhus. If, O Bhikkhus, this king 
had not slain his righteous father, there, even where he sat, 
the stainless, flawless Eye of Truth x would have come to 

So spake the Blessed One. Pleased and rejoiced 
were the Bhikkhus at the words which the Blessed One 

1 The " Eye of Truth" is the faculty which enables its possessor to 
perceive the ultimate fact, infelicity, and the cause and cure of the 



During the past nine years the Buddhist Society of Great Britain 
and Ireland (now Incorporated) has steadily and unswervingly pursued 
its appointed task of extending the knowledge of the teaching of the 
Buddha. By translations, commentaries, and numerous articles in its 
quarterly publication, the Buddhist Review, it has sought to make 
known to the West that excellent eight-fold path opened out by the 
Buddha — " the safe, the good, the joy-procuring road of Right Views, 
Aims, Speech, Action, Livelihood, Endeavour, Mindfulness, and 

Two years ago the Society moved into its present Headquarters, and 
the hope was expressed at the time that the Society might have at an 
early date, for a guest, a Bhikkhu. Various causes have hitherto 
prevented the realisation of this aim ; but it is now widely felt that an 
effort should be made to enable those interested in the Teaching to 
learn its deep truths, not merely from books, but by intercourse with 
a member of that Brotherhood devoted to its. service. 

The Council has ascertained that a learned Bhikkhu, who has trans- 
lated into English many valuable pasages from the ancient Buddhist 
writings, and whose name is known to all our members, is willing to live 
at the Headquarters. His presence here would certainly prove of the 
greatest help to Buddhists throughout the world, and the service he 
freely offers in connection with the Buddhist Review would greatly 
enhance its value. This opportunity having been offered to us, it is 
for Buddhist lay-people everywhere, and for members of this Society 
in particular, to decide whether or not there shall be in England a 
representative of the Sangha, which Sir Edwin Arnold has well described 
as — 

" That noble Order of the Yellow Robe 
Which to this day standeth to help the World." 

As doubts have been expressed as to whether the Buddhist Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland (Incorporated) are empowered to administer 
the Bhikkhu Fund, some members of the Council of that Society and 
others have formed an Association to be known as the Buddhist Associa- 
tion in England, for the purpose of serving as a reception committee 
to the Bhikkhu and of administering the Bhikkhu Fund generally. 
Subscriptions and donations will be gladly received in Burma by U 
Kyaw Yan, A.T.M., Mandalay, or Mrs. M. M. Hla Oung, Elgindale, 
2A, Pagoda Road, Rangoon ; in Ceylon by the Honorary Secretary of 
the Galle Branch of the Society, Proctor A. D. Jayasundere, Unawa- 
tuna, Galle, Ceylon ; and by the Honorary Secretary, Mr. F. E. Balls, 
at the Society's Headquarters, 43, Penywern Road, Earls Court, 
London, S.W. 5. 

CDe Buddhist Society or 
Great Britain $ Ireland. 


Headquarters : 43, PEHYWERN ROAD, EARLS COURT, 
LOUDON, S.W. 5. 


In all, the primal element is mind ; pre-eminent is mind ; by mind 
is all made. If a man speaks or acts uprightness of mind, happiness 
follows him close like his never-departing shadow. 

We live happily indeed, not hating those who hate us ; among men 
who hate us, we dwell free from hatred. 

From greed comes grief, from greed comes fear; he who is free 
from greed knows neither grief nor fear. 

Kinsmen, friends and lovers salute a man who has been long away 
and returns safe from afar. In like manner his good works receive 
him who has done good and has gone from this world to the other. 

The sages who injure nobody, and who always control their body, 
will go the Unchangeable, where they will suffer no more. 

Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise ! When thy infirmities 
are blown away, and thou art free from guilt, thou wilt not enter again 
into birth and decay. 

If a man looks after the faults of others and is always inclined to be 
offended, his own passions will grow, and he is far from the destruction 
of passions. 

Not to commit any sin, to do what is right, and to purify one's 
mind, — that is the teaching of all the Buddhas. 


And now, friends, desires are evil and hatreds are evil ; and for 
the getting rid of desires and hatreds there is a Middle Way, vision and 
knowledge-bestowing, which leads to Cessation, to Insight, to the 
Supreme Awakening, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way ? 
It is even the Excellent Eight-fold Path of Right Understanding, Right 
Mindedness, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Living, Right Effort, 
Right Recollectedness, Right Meditation. 

Majjhima Nikaya. 

" One thing only do I teach, Brothers — 
Sorrow and the Cure of Sorrow." 

About 483 B.C. the Buddha brought to realization those truths 
which have proved of such consolation and benefit to countless myriads 
of suffering humanity and all living things. His teaching has not only 
permeated the East, but, by the missionary effort of its earlier years, 
largely influenced the religion and literature of the West. As an ethical 
system, it sets up a rule of righteousness that has invariably, whenever 
followed, led to better and happier living. Looking the universe fairly 
in the face, and strictly basing its teachings upon what it finds there, it 
points forward from the world's sorrow to the great ultimate Peace. 
Its science is in harmony with, and in many respects has antedated, the 
best results of the moderns. 


The objects of the Society are to promote a wider knowledge of the 
tenets of Buddhism, and the study of Pali and Sanscrit Buddhist 
literature. These objects the Society will prosecute, (a) by printing and 
circulating works on Buddhism, Pali Texts and translations of Buddhist 
Scriptures, etc. ; (b) by promoting Buddhist Education ; and (c) by 
arranging for the delivery of Lectures, etc., on Buddhist subjects, and 
in such other manner as may hereafter commend itself to the Council. 


Fellowship or Associateship of the Buddhist Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland, whether Honorary, General or Corresponding, is 
open to all persons, irrespective of their religious beliefs, and does not 
imply more than an interest in one or other of the objects of the Society. 

Applicants for Fellowship or Associateship should fill in an Applica- 
tion Form and send it, together with the prescribed Annual Subscription 
in advance, to the Hon. Treasurer. Election is by the Council. 

Fellows. — The Annual Subscription to the Buddhist Society is 
One Guinea for Fellows, payable in advance. Fellows are entitled to 
take part in all General Meetings, to vote thereat, and are eligible for all 
other privileges of the Society and qualified to hold office. 

Associates. — The Annual Subscription for Associates is Half a 
Guinea, payable in advance, with the privilege at present of receiving 
the Buddhist Review, and such other publications as the Council may 
from time to time determine. 

The Buddhist Society has been established for all who are in any 
way interested in Buddhism, regardless of creed. Its organ is the 
Buddhist Review (quarterly). Other publications are issued. 

Meetings are held by the Society every Sunday evening, at 6.30 
o'clock, except during the month of August, at the Headquarters. 
Admission Free. 

The Society has now the following funds to sustain the various 
branches of its work : — 

1. The General Fund. 3. The Bhikkhu Fund. 

a. The Housing Fund. 4. The Publication Fund. 

Subscriptions and donations to any of these funds will be gratefully 
-acknowledge*! by the Hon. Treasurer. 

Headquarters : 
43, Penywern Road, Earls Court, London, S.W. 5. 


The following publications are on sale at — 

43, Penywern Rd., London, S.W. 5 (close to Earls Court Station). 

The Buddhist ReYiew. 60 pp., 8vo. Single copies, is., post free 
is. i\d., or 4s. 6d. per annum. 

Lotus Blossoms, a little book on Buddhism, 6d., post free yd. Third 
and Revised Edition. Designed to put into the hands of those 
who are making their first enquiries in the religion called Buddhism, 
this book consists mainly of short extracts from the actual scrip- 
tures, translated into very choice English prose by the Bhikkhu 
Silacara. The translations are arranged and notes added in such 
a way as to enable the reader to glance briefly at practically the 
whole groundwork of the Buddhist system of mental training. 

" Subdue the angry by friendliness ; overcome evil with 
good ; conquer those that are greedy by liberality and the liar 
with the speech of truth." 

Dhammapada (from " Lotus Blossoms"). 

Buddhism. An illustrated Quarterly Review. Out of Print. Only 
a limited number of copies left ; is., post free is. 3d. 

The Word of the Buddha. An outline of Buddhism in the words 
of the Pali Canon, with Notes, by Nyanatiloka Thero. Translated 
by the Bhikkhu Silacara. 69 pp. Price 6d., post free, j$d. 

" This, O Brothers, is the highest, this is the holiest wisdom, 
namely, to know that all suffering has vanished away. He has 
found the true deliverance that lies beyond the reach of any 

Majjhima 140 (from " The Word of the Buddha " : 
Second English Edition). 

The Dhammapada, or Way of Truth. Prose translation by the 
Bhikkhu Silacara. 51 pp. Price 6d. (Members qd.), post free *j\d. 

Buddhism, or the Religion of Burma, by Bhikkhu Ananda M. 
54 pp. 6d., post free y\d. 

Buddhism and Science, by Dr. Ernest. 3d., post free $\d. 

An Outline of Buddhism, by Bhikkhu Ananda Metteyya. 3d., post 
free 3\d. 

" Leaves from the Bo-Tree," being extracts from the authentic 
sayings of the Buddha. Handsomely printed on best ivory post- 
cards, in two colours, ornamented. In packets of six, two kinds, 
6d. per packet, 6s. per 100. 

The Essentials of the Dhamma. A modern exposition of Buddhism. 
3d., post free 3\d. 

The above-mentioned publications can be obtained at the Sunday 
evening meetings, or on application by post to the Secretary, at 
Headquarters : — 

43, PENYWERN ROAD, S.W. 5 (close to Earls Court Station). 

Cfte BucWDist Societp of Great 
Britain ana Ireland* 


Patron : 

Vice-Presidents : 



Mrs. M. M. HLA OUNG {Rangoon). 


Dr. W. A. DE SILVA, J. P. {Colombo). 

U KYAW YAN, A.T.M. {Mandalay). 

Vice-Presidents who have filled the office of President : 



Other Members of the Council : 
Mrs. AVERY {Hon. Secretary, Liverpool Branch). 
F. E. BALLS {Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, pro. tern.). 
The Hon. ERIC C. F. COLLIER {Hon. Foreign Secretary & Chairman). 


T. W. GOONEWARDENE MUDALIYAR {President, Galle Branch). 

Miss HALE. 

Dr. C. A. HEWAVITARNE {Ceylon). 


Proctor A. D. JAYASUNDERE {Secretary, Galle Branch). 


C. R. PARRY {Hon. Editor). 



Bankers: LONDON & SOUTH-WESTERN, BANK, Earls Court, 

S.W. 5. 

Auditor : ERNEST ANDRADE, Chartered Accountant. 

Headquarters : 

The Buddhist Review. 

Quarterly, 1 8. ; Post Free, 1s. 1 id. 

Readers are strongly advised to secure back numbers of 
the " Buddhist Review " (80 pages) containing trans- 
lations from the Pali Suttas, of which the following 
have appeared :— 

Dhaniya — A Pali Poem. Translated from the Sutta Nipata by the 
Bhikkhu Silacara. 3 pp. 

(Contained in the Buddhist Review, Vol. II., No. 2, which also 
contains articles by Mr. J. T. Lloyd, The Bhikkhu Ananda 
Metteyya, The Bhikkhu Sasana Dhaja, and : 

The Discourse on Burning. Translated from the Mahavagga I. 21, 
by Dr. Francis Mason, D.D.) 

The Parable of the Saw. Translated from the Majjhima Nikaya 
by the Bhikkhu Silacara. 9 pp. 

" Yea, disciples, even if highway robbers with a two-handed saw 
should take and dismember you limb by limb, whoso grew darkened in 
mind thereby would not be fulfilling my injunctions. Even then, 
disciples, thus must you school yourselves : ' Unsullied shall our 
minds remain, neither shall evil word escape our lips.' Kind 
and compassionate ever, we will abide loving of heart nor harbour 
secret hate." 

(Contained in Vol. II., No. 2, which also contains articles by 
Mrs. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, M.A., Mr. A. D. Howell Smith, B.A., 

The Parable of the Snake. Translated from the Majjhima Nikaya 
by the Bhikkhu Silacara, 14 pp. 

Contains the famous " Raft " simile, which is one of the most 
widely known portions of the doctrine. This Sutta is one of the 
most important in the whole Pali Canon. 

" Sateless are desires," the Blessed One has said, " full of suffering, 
full of despair, altogether wretched. A scrap of fles h which a bird 
of prey must part with if it would not be torn in pieces of its fellows 
— a pit of live coals, the which a man about 10 be thrown therein must 
struggle 10 escape — a dream which evanishes upon the dreamer's 

These Buddhist Reviews can be purchased, price is. i\d., post free, 
and it is the experience of not a few, that no work forms a better 
introduction to Buddhism, or excites more interest, than translations 
from the actual Suttas. They should be found in every Dagaba- or 
Pagoda-Temple and rest-house throughout Buddhist Countries which 
is visited by English-speaking travellers. 

The " Parable of the Saw " is specially designed for the suppression 
of ill-will, and the " Parable of the Snake " for the destruction of 

Application Form for Membership, 

T§ the Secretary, 




43, Penywern Road, Earls Court, London, S W. 5. 

I herewith send being my 

(*) Fellow 

Subscription as 


and desire that I may be elected to the Society in that 




Occupation or Qualification 

* The Annual Subscription payable by Fellows is £1 is. ; that payable 
by Associates 10s. 6d. 

I enclose (1) 4s. 6d. as subscription to the Buddhist Review ; 
(2) in payment for the following publications, or as a 

donation to the following Fund 



Date 4 



This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 


JAN % 1 2003 



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- — - 



— —rr 


FFB 4 1963 

LD 21A-50m-8,'57 

General Library 

University of California